||How has the manufacture of bitumen changed in the past 120-years, and what about traffic levels? We recognize that these have changed! But what about bitumen testing – PEN and Softening point as test methods were in specifications 120-years ago! Are we stuck in the past? In the last 30-years a tremendous volume of work has been conducted with asphalt binder/PmBs and bitumen rheology. The understanding of our favorite road surfacing materials has expanded largely. This presentation by Dr. Geoffrey Rowe, will explore the changes that have occurred with the advanced characterization of bituminous binders in the USA, UK and other places. He will comment on how the UK has used rheology with asphalt binders and make suggestions for what we could conceive in the future.